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姚鸿勋1, 邓伟洪2, 刘洪海1, 洪晓鹏1, 王甦菁3, 杨巨峰4, 赵思成5(1.哈尔滨工业大学, 哈尔滨 150006;2.北京邮电大学, 北京 100876;3.中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100083;4.南开大学, 天津 300071;5.美国哥伦比亚大学, 纽约 10032, 美国)

摘 要
An overview of research development of affective computing and understanding

Yao Hongxun1, Deng Weihong2, Liu Honghai1, Hong Xiaopeng1, Wang Sujing3, Yang Jufeng4, Zhao Sicheng5(1.Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150006, China;2.Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China;3.Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China;4.Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China;5.Columbia University, New York 10032, USA)

Humans are emotional creatures. Emotion plays a key role in various intelligent actions, including perception, decision-making, logical reasoning, and social interaction. Emotion is an important and dispensable component in the realization of human-computer interaction and machine intelligence. Recently, with the explosive growth of multimedia data and the rapid development of artificial intelligence, affective computing and understanding has attracted much research attention. It aims to establish a harmonious human-computer environment by giving the computing machines the ability to recognize, understand, express, and adapt to human emotions, and to make computers have higher and more comprehensive intelligence. Based on the input signals, such as speech, text, image, action and gait, and physiological signals, affective computing and understanding can be divided into multiple research topics. In this paper, we will comprehensively review the development of four important topics in affective computing and understanding, including multi-modal emotion recognition, autism emotion recognition, affective image content analysis, and facial expression recognition. For each topic, we first introduce the research background, problem definition, and research significance. Specifically, we introduce how such topics were proposed, what the corresponding tasks do, and why it is important in different applications. Second, we introduce the international and domestic research on emotion data annotation, feature extraction, learning algorithms, performance comparison and analysis of some representative methods, and famous research teams. Emotion data annotation is conducted to evaluate the performances of affective computing and understanding algorithms. We briefly summarize how categorical and dimensional emotion representation models in psychology are used to construct datasets and the comparisons between these datasets. Feature extraction aims to extract discriminative features to represent emotions. We summarize both hand-crafted features in the early years and deep features in the deep learning era. Learning algorithms aim to learn a mapping between extracted features and emotions. We also summarize and compare both traditional and deep models. For a better understanding of how existing methods work, we report the emotion recognition results of some representative and influential methods on multiple datasets and give some detailed analysis. To better track the latest research for beginners, we briefly introduce some famous research teams with their research focus and main contributions. After that, we systematically compare the international and domestic research, and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of domestic research, which would motivate and boost the future research for domestic researchers and engineers. Finally, we discuss some challenges and promising research directions in the future for each topic, such as 1) image content and context understanding, viewer contextual and prior knowledge modeling, group emotion clustering, viewer and image interaction, and efficient learning for affective image content analysis; 2) data collection and annotation, real-time facial expression analysis, hybrid expression recognition, personalized emotion expression, and user privacy. Since emotion is an abstract, subjective, and complex high-level semantic concept, there are still some limitations of existing methods, and many challenges still remain unsolved. Such promising future research directions would help to reach the emotional intelligence for a better human-computer interaction.