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人群应急疏散可视仿真研究进展和问题

刘箴(宁波大学信息科学与工程学院, 宁波 315211)

摘 要
人群应急疏散可视仿真是用智能体来模拟具有自主感知、情绪和行为能力的人群个体,并采用3维可视的方式来直观呈现人群应急疏散情景,可以为制定人群应急预案提供形象直观的分析方法。本文从人群仿真数据的来源、人群导航模型的构建、人群行为模型、人群情绪感染、人群渲染5个方面概述目前研究的进展,然后从仿真模型的可验证性、人群疏散导航模型的构建、人与环境的物理模型、动物逃生实验与仿真、疏散中的社会行为表现以及人群情绪的可视计算6个角度讨论需要进一步研究的问题。针对需要深入研究的问题,指出借助于紧急事件的视频监控分析和虚拟人群情景的用户调查,有助于完善人群仿真模型。结合物理模型,可以更准确地描述人群应急疏散场景。开展动物逃生实验分析,有助于完善人群运动导航算法。建立人群社会行为模型,可以更详细描述疏散中人群行为的多样性。构建基于多通道感知的人群情绪感染计算方法,可以详尽描述情绪感染的过程。人群应急疏散行为的可视仿真研究在城市的安全管理方面具有重要的应用前景,但其研究仍存在很多亟待解决的问题,综合地运用多学科知识,完善实验手段是进一步推动研究的关键所在。
关键词
Progress and problems in visual simulation of crowd emergency evacuation behaviors

Liu Zhen(Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China)

Abstract
The visual simulation of crowd emergency evacuation is a method that uses agents to simulate individuals with autonomous perceptions, emotions, and behavioral abilities. With 3D visual means, it can visualize the emergency evacuation scenarios of the crowd. This study summarizes the research progress from the sources of crowd simulation data, the construction of the crowd navigation and behavior models, the crowd emotional contagion, and the crowd rendering. This study also discusses issues that must be studied from the perspective of the verifiability of the simulation model, the construction of the crowd evacuation navigation model and the physical model of humans and environments, the animal evacuation experiment and simulation, the social behavior of evacuation, and the visual calculation of crowd emotions. For the problems that must be studied in depth, results are as follows. The video surveillance analysis of emergency events and the user survey of virtual crowd scenarios can be used to improve the crowd simulation model. The analysis of animal evacuation experiments can improve the crowd navigation algorithm. The social behavior model can describe the diversity of the crowd evacuation behaviors in further details. The calculation method based on multichannel perceptions can describe the process of emotional contagion in further details. Visual simulation research on crowd emergency evacuation behaviors has important application prospects in the management of urban safety. However, numerous problems remain to be solved in this field. The comprehensive application of multidisciplinary knowledge and the improvement of experimental methods are the keys for future studies.
Keywords
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