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滑坡高分辨率遥感多维解译方法及其应用

鲁学军,史振春,尚伟涛,周和颐(中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;兰州交通大学测绘与地理信息学院, 兰州 730070;中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)

摘 要
目的 高分辨率遥感影像技术的发展使得对于地质灾害体的要素组成、形态结构的遥感解译成为可能。目前,遥感影像解译存在着过度依赖影像色彩、纹理、阴影等光学要素,片面追求影像解译标志,DEM数据利用程度低,对基于DEM、GIS的影像复合分析、空间分析、3D可视化等技术方法的应用较少等问题。方法 以灾前灾后高精度DEM和高分辨率遥感影像为基础,探讨了地质灾害滑坡的1维、2维、3维3种遥感解译方法,分析了三者之间的互补关系,并应用3种遥感解译方法对贵州关岭“6.28”特大滑坡进行了遥感解译分析,最后对有关滑坡多维遥感解译方法体系的建立进行了讨论。结果 研究结果表明:滑坡高分辨率遥感多维解译方法中,1维高程曲线计算、2维影像对比分析、3维场景精细解译分别属于滑坡遥感解译的初判方法、动态分析方法、定量计算方法;结论 其中,1维高程曲线计算为滑坡遥感的2维、3维解译提供了有关滑坡崩塌区、滑坡区、堆积区的可能分区参考框架,而2维影像对比分析向3维场景精细解译的发展则体现了以人机交互方式为主要手段的滑坡高分辨率遥感影像解译由定性监测向定量计算的发展。
关键词
The method and application of multi-dimension interpretation for landslides using high resolution remote sensing image

Lu Xuejun,Shi Zhenchun,Shang Weitao,Zhou Heyi(Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;Faculty of Geomatics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China;Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China)

Abstract
Objective Human-machine interaction is the main way for geographic hazard remote sensing interpretation at home and abroad as it is easy to use, intuitive and efficient. But there still exist certain problems, such as excessive dependence on image color, texture, shadow and other optical elements, one-sided pursuit of interpreting keys, lacking use of DEM, insufficient applications of image comprehensive analysis, spatial analysis and 3D visualization based on GIS. Thus this paper conducts research into quantitative analysis of human-machine interaction. Method This paper explores three methods of one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional remote sensing interpretation based on pre-and post-disaster DEM and high spatial resolution remote sensing images, and analyses the complementary relationships among them. Then Guanling ‘6.28’ Mega Landslide in Guizhou province of China is interpreted by comprehensively using the three methods. Result One-dimensional elevation curve calculation gives the initial impression of landslides interpretation, two-dimensional image comparison and analysis belongs to dynamic analysis methods, and precise three-dimensional scene interpretation is quantitative calculation. Conclusion During one-dimensional elevation curve calculation the possible partition frame of collapse area, landslide area and accumulation area along the curve movement is obtained, which provides spatial reference for two-and three-dimensional interpretations. The development from two-dimensional image comparison and analysis to precise three-dimensional scene interpretation shows that high spatial resolution remote sensing image interpretation of landslides has developed from qualitative analysis highly relying on man-machine interaction mode to quantitative calculation mainly based on multi-dimensional spatial analysis models.
Keywords
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